Farming practices found in recent years, several kinds of mycotoxin synergy effects for animal health and production performance is better than the side effects of a mycotoxin role separately. The actual production conditions cause animal production performance degradation and poisoning the content of mycotoxin often far lower than the experimental control conditions cause the same toxic effect of single dose mycotoxin. Research shows that, compared with feeding and purification of mycotoxin feeding mycotoxin feed produced by natural pollution poisoning symptoms are more severe than others. In addition, the interactions between the mycotoxin could change clinical symptoms of poisoning, cause the symptom of a series of diagnostic characteristics different from the separate function combined. This makes it difficult to diagnosis field.
Mycotoxin interaction effect can be divided into additive effect, the additive effect, synergies, synergistic effect and the effect of the rivalry. Additive effect (Additiveeffects) refers to the two kinds of combination of mycotoxin effect is equal to the accumulation of both single function together. Synergistic effect (Synergistic effects) refers to two kinds of mycotoxin combination is higher than the accumulation of both single function together. Interaction effect is both in the genus fusarium oxysporum toxin between sickle (species) is the most popular, the worst happened. The additive effect (Less than additive effects) occurred from a combination of two kinds of mycotoxin below the accumulation of both single function together. Synergistic effect (Potentiative effects) is a mycotoxin on a tissue or organ does not produce toxic effect, but after another mycotoxin intake, increase toxicity of the former to the latter. Rivalry effect (Antagonistic effects) is a mycotoxin interfering with another mycotoxin toxic effects. It is a rare situation.
A, aflatoxin and sickle bacterial interaction effect between the mycotoxin
the study found that day at the same time exist aflatoxin in food and the two T - 2 toxin mycotoxin, interaction of additive effect or the additive effect. The broiler chickens fed aflatoxin and snake toxins at the same time, from body weight, average red blood cell volume, the average content of red blood cells, hemoglobin, serum triglycerides, indices such as serum calcium, the toxicity of both interaction effect of synergistic effect. Growing swine feeding at the same time containing aflatoxin B1 and smoke aspergillus toxin Bl of the diet, regardless of the diet contains a mycotoxin or contains two kinds of mycotoxin at the same time, all the clinical manifestation, biochemical, hematology and immunological indexes produced adverse effect.
In general, the coexistence of animal feed on a variety of mycotoxin diet response than the response to these mycotoxins individually, toxicity reaction is cumulative, sometimes toxic effects than single after the mold toxin accumulation, characterized by synergistic effect, especially liver injury of animals.
Second, ochre and aspergillus toxin and other interaction effect between the mycotoxin
In ochratoxin A and T 2 toxin discovered in the research on the effects of growth to castrate pigs, they to the pig growth performance, serum biochemical indexes, serological indexes, immune function and tissues is A cumulative weight interaction. Growing swine feeding at the same time contains ochratoxin A sickle, deoxidization snow fungus ene alcohol and corn gibberellic ketene diet for 90 days, the results found that DNA was not detected in pig tissue snow sickle bacteria and corn gibberellic ketene, but in the diet also contains the snow sickle bacteria ene alcohol and corn gibberellic ketene affected pigs ochratoxin A drain. Can be seen from the microscope observation, ochratoxin A and penicillium acid toxic effect of young pigs, pig kidney damage is different from the typical Danish pig kidney disease. This shows that ochratoxin A possible synergies between acid and penicillium.
Three, smoke aspergillus toxin B1 and other interactions between sickle bacteria is a mycotoxin effects
Smoke aspergillus toxin B1 and deoxidization snow enol sickle bacteria to grow yan pig growth performance, serum biochemical indicator, immune response and histopathologic response additive interactions effect; The analysis results of some indicators from another country, there are beyond the interactions of a cumulative, show the synergy effect.
Four, deoxidization snow sickle bacteria ene alcohol and other sickle bacteria genera interaction effect between the mycotoxin
The study found that the diet deoxidization snow sickle ene alcohol and T - 2 toxins obviously toxicology synergy between. Will naturally mouldy corn, among them with snow sickle bacteria enol 11.5 mg/kg and corn gibberellic ketene 3 mg/kg of diet feeding for growing pigs and pregnancy sow respectively, the results found that growth of pig feed intake decreases, the average daily gain, feed conversion efficiency reduced.
Table 1 and table 2 respectively, summarizes some common mycotoxins in feed to pigs poultry interaction effect of toxicity. Due to physiological response variables impact on the biological and economic uncertainty, the results of the research is limited to two kinds of mycotoxin interaction effect on the properties of animal production.
These results do not represent the animal symptoms in the process of production (may be more serious in the process of production), some deficiencies, such as mycotoxins very high doses of the interaction effect between them can be difficult to find, because a single toxins produced by toxic reaction might have been the largest. But most existing research does not consider the effects of toxic effects on the immune system. According to the report, a variety of mycotoxin induced immunosuppression may make animal pathogenic factor of affecting production performance increase susceptibility. Another deficiency is that the study of existing evaluation of two kinds of the interaction effect of mycotoxin, but in fact the contaminated feed containing mycotoxins may be more than two. In addition the study was conducted under laboratory conditions, animal generally are not exposed to environmental stress factors (such as thermal, NH3, disease, etc.)
Table 1 mycotoxin toxic interaction effect of pigs
Mycotoxin animal species interactions type source
Aflatoxin and T - 2 toxin additive effect growing swine Harvey, etc., 1990; 1995
Aflatoxin and vomiting toxins pig growth and the additive effect Harvey, etc., 1989
Aflatoxin and snake poison additive effect growing swine Harvey, etc., 1991
Aspergillus toxin aflatoxin and smoke B1 growing swine synergies Harvey, etc., 1995
Ochratoxin A growing swine and T - 2 toxin and additive effect Harvey, etc., 1994
Smoke aspergillus toxin B1 and vomiting toxins growing swine synergies Harvey, etc., 1996
Smoke aspergillus toxin B1 and beaded sickle fungus toxin additive effect growing swine Harvey, etc., 1989; 1997
Aflatoxin and ochratoxin A pig growth and the additive effect Tapia and Seawright, 1985
Ochratoxin A growing pigs and T - 2 toxin (yan pigs) additive effect Harvey, etc., 1994; Lusky etc., 1998
Ochratoxin A pig synergies and penicillium acid Stoev, etc., 2001
Vomiting toxins growth and T - 2 pig Friend no interactions evidence, etc., 1992; Rotter, etc., 1992
Table 2 mycotoxin on avian interaction effect of toxicity
Mycotoxin animal species interactions effect data sources
Yellow aspergillus toxin and ochratoxin A synergistic effect of A chicken
The additive effect Huff, etc. A, b, 1981; Huff, etc. A, 1984;
Huff, etc. B, 1992
Aflatoxin and T - 2 toxin chicken synergies Huff, etc., 1988; Kubena, etc., 1990
Aflatoxin and snake poison chicken synergies Kubena, etc., 1993
Aflatoxin and vomiting toxins chicken additive effect Huff, etc., 1986
Aspergillus toxin aflatoxin and smoke B1 baby turkeys additive effect
Only yellow aspergillus toxin affected Kubena, etc., 1995; Weibking, etc., 1994
Aflatoxin and chicken and horse ANI acid additive effect Smith, etc., 1992
Aflatoxin and could sour chicken Giroir additive effect, etc., 1991
Aflatoxin and beaded sickle fungus toxin chicken and additive effect Kubena, etc., 1997
Ochratoxin A chicken and T - 2 toxin additive effect Kubena, etc., 1989
Smoke aspergillus toxin and vomiting toxins chicken only aflatoxin B1 affected Kubena, etc., 1997
Vomiting toxins and beaded sickle fungus toxin chicken and additive effect Harvey, etc., 1997
Vomiting toxins and beaded sickle bacteria toxin baby turkeys beaded sickle only bacteria toxins affected Morris, etc., 1999
Vomiting toxins chicken additive effect and T - 2 Kubena, etc., 1989
Smoke aspergillus toxin B1 and beaded sickle fungus toxin aflatoxin only affected layers are Kubena, etc., 1999
Smoke aspergillus toxin B1 and beaded sickle bacteria toxin baby turkeys beaded sickle only bacteria toxins affected Li, etc., 2000
Smoke aspergillus toxin B1 and T - 2 toxin baby turkeys additive effect Kubena, etc., 1995
Smoke aspergillus toxin B1 and T - 2 toxin chicken and additive effect Kubena, etc., 1997
Smoke aspergillus toxin B1 and snake poison baby turkeys additive effect Kubena, etc., 1997
Smoke aspergillus toxin B1 and ochratoxin A baby turkeys additive effect Kubena, etc., 1997
Ochratoxin A chicken and penicillium acid only ochratoxin A affected Kubena, etc., 1984
Ochratoxin A chicken and orange mold toxin Manning rivalry effect, etc., 1985
Ochratoxin A chicken and vomiting toxins additive effect Kubena, etc., 1988
Ochratoxin A chicken and snake toxins and additive effect Kubena, etc., 1994
Ring horse ANI acid and T - 2 toxin chicken and additive effect Kubena, etc., 1994
Feeding piglets at the same time contains the snow sickle bacteria enol, 15 - acetyl deoxidation snow fungus alcohol unit, corn gibberellic acid ketene and sickle bacterium natural mildew wheat and corn diet, found that weight gain and feed intake of the piglets obviously decreased; At the same time, the piglets brain neurochemical index change. May be due to the mycotoxin exist together in the diet neural chemistry, produces different effects on the brain.
Interaction between mycotoxin, will greatly increase the animal mycotoxin poisoning symptoms, this led to the actual content of the mycotoxins in feed is not high, but the animal poisoning symptoms. Therefore, considering the condition feed contaminated with mycotoxins, not blindly reference to national standards, should be considered the interaction between various toxin, the standard is suitable for the actual production, the mold toxin poisoning prevention and treatment of animals.